The development in the dairy industry has also created some problems like nutritional standards, upkeep of live stocks, disease control in cattle, up grading of milking animals genetically, environmental pollution and the pest control problems in the production units as well as in the cattle yards.
A variety of insect and mite pests affect the dairy industry in the country. House flies, stable flies, face flies, horn flies, horse flies, deer flies, cattle grubs, lice, and mange mites all are common and significant pests of cattle.
Insect and mite pest activity results in lowered milk production levels and reduced feed conversion efficiency. It exposes cattle to pathogenic microorganisms and causes blood loss and hide damage. It can lead to public health–public nuisance concerns.
Moreover, insect and mite pest pressure can add to stresses on young replacement animals, delaying their entry into production and adversely affecting lifelong production performance. As herd sizes increase on modern farms, pest pressures often are aggravated by large quantities of animal waste that must be handled and by crowded conditions that promote the spread of external parasites.
In the past, management of cattle pests often has relied on insecticide use as a single control tactic. But this single-tactic approach can aggravate insecticide resistance problems in pest populations and inadvertently destroy natural enemies of the target species.
Modern dairy producers are viewing careful use of pesticides into Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs. IPM programs seek to maximize the effectiveness of pest control actions while conserving beneficial insects and minimizing pesticide use. The cornerstone of effective IPM is correct pest identification along with accurate and timely pest monitoring. Other components are various combinations of cultural, biological, and chemical control practices designed to keep pest populations below economically injurious levels.